• Last Updated on Oct 26, 2021

Table of Contents

Nepal has a long and glorious history about the dynasties and Kings who ruled over Nepal for the Long period of time. Its civilization can be traced back thousands of years before the birth of Christ. According to the history of Nepal, dynasties of Ahirs and Gopalas, Kirants, Licchavis, and Thakuris ruled over the country before the Malla period began. Before the campaign of national integration propelled by Prithvi Narayan Shah-first shah king, Malla kings ruled over the Kathmandu valley and had contributed a lot in arts and culture and the period that they ruled over, used to be considered a golden age of Nepal.   Modern Nepal is a unification of a number of territories which had independent entities in the past.  In 1768 A.D., the Malla kings were defeated by Shah Kings and unified the nation that was separated into small independent Empires.

Prithvi Narayan Shah (1722-1775 A.D)

King Prithvi Narayan Shah has been celebrated as the founder of modern Nepal. He became the king of Gorkha in the year 1743 and successfully laid the foundation for the establishment of modern Nepali state. he did so by conquering the three Kathmandu valley Kingdom and taking control of the eastern hill (kirata and sena) state as far as river Tista in Sikkim

Pratap Singh Shah (1751-1777 A.D)

Pratap, the son, and successor to King Prithvi Narayan Shah became the king in 177.because of submissive nature and blind faith in tantricism, his short-lived region was full of chaos and tensing among the bharadars the countries.

Rana Bahadur Shah (1775-1806 A.D)

Rana Bahadur Singh became king on the death of his father Pratap Singh Shah in 1777 but got the virtual status of the actual ruler in 1779 after dismissing the regret,his uncle Bahadur Shah,abdicated in 1799 to ensure succession of his son through a Brahmin concubine and retired from power and travelled to Banaras to spend rest of his life as a Sadhu (Holy Man ). Return from Banaras in 1804 in a bid to reoccupy the once abandoned throne but was assassinated by his half-brother Sher Bahadur Shah

Girvanayuddha Bikram Shah (1797-1816 A.D )

Girvanayuddha Bikram Shah became a king on his father’s (Rana Bahadur’s) abdication in 1799 but he died pretty young in 1816 before he could take control of the country from his stepmother

Rajendra Bikram Shah (1813-1881 A.D )

Rajendra Bikram Shah became king of Nepal in 1816 and took charge of the country after the dismissal of Bhimsen Thapa, the first prime minister of Nepal,in1837. He was badly entangled with an internal power struggle with his junior queen and crown prince Surendra Bikram, taking advantage of such a chaotic situation, a less known army officer janga Bahadur suddenly rose to power and replaced old king Rajendra with crown prince Surendra in 1847. Later, king Rajendra was arrested and keep in confinement in Bhaktapur for the rest of his life

Surendra Bikram Shah (1829-1881 A.D)

Surendra Bikram Shah became king in 1847 after the deposition of his father Rajendra, as designed by Janga Bahadur Rana. Since then, the real power remained in the strong hands of Janga Bahadur. A century-long ( 1846-1950) Rana aristocracy had begun pushing the virtual kings, the Shaha into the dark chambers of the place and rendering them puppets in the hands of Rana Prime Ministers.

Trailokya Bikram Shah (1848-1878 A.D)

Son of Surendra Trailokya Bikram Shah the crown prince tried to regain royal power from the Ranas with the help of the disgruntled nobles and courtiers but he died a premature death when he was given a slow poison by Janga’s youngest brother Dhir Smasher before he could even sit on the powerless throne.

Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah (1875-1911 A.D)

Succeed the throne at the age of six after the death of his grandfather Surendra. He was also a victim of the Ranas as he involved in anti-Rana activities.he also dies young.

Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah (1906-1955 A.D)

Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah succeeds his father Prithvi as king of Nepal in 1911. Being the star witness of Rana atrocity and hegemony for a long time. Tribhuvan made an alliance with the Nepali Congress in 1950 against the Ranas. He secretly flew to Indian then return to Kathmandu in February 1951 and presided over a congress-Rana coalition government. he died in Switzerland in March 1955 while receiving treatment.

Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah (1920-1972 A.D)

He is Succeed the throne after the death of his father king Tribhuvan in 1955. he permitted  Nepal’s first parliamentary election in 1959 but in December 1960 removed B.P Koirala's Congress government and retrained all political control in his own hands and introduced Panchayat system in the form of indirectly elected councils.

Birendra Bir Bikram Shah (1995-2001 A.D)

Birendra became king of Nepal in 1972 and continued the panchayat system as introduced by his father but in response to disturbances in 1979, he called a referendum and endorsed a liberalized panchayat system 1990, he bowed to the renewed popular demands for democracy. He died in June 2001 in a palace massacre, the mystery of which has not been made public

Dipendra Bir Bikram Shah (1971-2001 A.D)

He is a well-educated elder son and successor of King Birendra. He believed to have clashed with his parents over an issue of marriage and this, together with the effect of drugs, led him to gun down most of the member of the royal family before commenting suicide on June 2001.

Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah (1947 A.D )

As the second son of King Mahendra, he was briefly placed on the throne in 1950-51 when his grandfather field to India. After the death of King Birendra and his family in the 2001 palace massacre, he again became the king of Nepal and tried to reinstate control of the country. But he failed and the monarchy was replaced by the democratic federalism during the people’s movement of 2005-6.

Dipak Sapkota


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